Reference Material
[Main Page]

Updated February 13,  2001

As far as we can determine, there is no single source or site that provides much of the reference material ever published regarding boa constrictors; this is an attempt to correct that.  Much of the material is out of print and, as a consequence, is difficult to find.  We will periodically update this page as we find additional material.

Recommended Reading:

  Abalos, J. W. & Mischis, C. C. 1975. Elenco Sistematico de los Ofidious Argentinos. Bol. Acad. Nac. Ciencias de Cordoba, 51(1-2): 55-75.

 ---. & Nader, R.  1965,  Serpientes de Santiago de Estero.  Acta Zool. Llona, 20:211-283.

   Abrahams, R.  1992.  Ivermectin as a Spray for the Treatment of Snake Mites.  Bull. Assn. Rept. And Amph Veter.  2(1): 1992.

  Amaral, A. 1977.  Serpentes do Brasil. Iconografia Colorida.  Tomo I, II, III. Ed. Melhoramentos & Inst. Nac. Livro, Edit. Univer. Sao Paulo, Pp.248.

 Andreotti, F.  1993.  Notes on Captive Propagation and Husbandry of the Red-tail Boa Constrictor, Boa constrictor ssp.  Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc.  28(5): 98-102 .

  Andrews, E. Wyllys.  1937.  Notes on Snakes From the Yucatan Peninsula.  Zool. Series, Field Mus. Nat. Hist.  20(25): 355-359.

  Aquino, A. L. Scott, N. J., & Motte, M. 1996.  Lista de Amphibios y Reptiles del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay.  Pp.331-400.  En: Collecciones de Flora y Fauna de Museo de Historia Natural del Paraguay.  (O. Romero Martinez, ed.).  Invenario Biologico Nacional.
MNHNP/DPNVS/SSERNMA/MAG., Asunsion.  Pp. 573

  Arendt, W. J. and Anthony D.  1986.  Bat Predation by the St. Lucia Boa (Boa constrictor orophias).  Carib. J. Sci.  22(3-4): 219-220.

  Barbour, Thomas.  1906.  Vertebrata from the Savanna of Panama.  Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.  Harvard University.  Vol. XLVI.  No. 12.

  Barbour, Thomas and Afranio Do Amaral.  1924.  Notes on Some South American Snakes.  Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.  Vol.5, p. 129-132.

  Barbour, Thomas and A. Loveridge.  1929.  Reptiles and Amphibians.  Vertebrates from the Corn Islands.  Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.  Harvard University.  69: 138-146.

  Barker, D. and T. Barker.  1994.  Boas in the Spotlight.  The Vivarium, 6(2): 38-41.

  Bertona, M. and Chiaraviglio, M. 1996.  Biologia Reproductiva de Boa constrictor occidentalis.  Res. XI Reunion de Com. Herp. A. H. A., 1:4.

  Bogart, Charles M. and James A. Oliver.  1945.  A Preliminary Analysis of the Herpetofauna of Sonora.  Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.  83: 297-426.

   Boos, H.  1984a (dated 1983-84).  A Consideration of the Terrestrial Reptile Fauna on Some Offshore Islands Northwest of Trinidad.  Living World Journal.  J. Trinidad and Tobago Field Nat. Club 1983-84: 19-26.

 ---.  1984b.  The Status and Distribution of Important Reptiles and Amphibians in Trinidad and Tobago.  New York. FAO United Nations.  19Pp.

   Booth, R.  1990.  Dominica.  National Geographic, June:  100-120.

   Both, Allen R.  1999.  The Argentine Boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis).  Reptile and Amphibian Hobbyist, 5(3): 33-39.

   Boulenger, E.G.  1946.  Reptiles and Batrachians.  E.P. Dutton and Co., New York.  Pp. 278.

  Boulenger, G. A. 1896.  Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History).  3 vols., London: Trustees of the British Mus. (1893-1896).

   Boza, M. A.  1988.  Costa Rica: Parques Nacionales.  Editorial Heliconia Fundacion Neotropica.  San Jose, Costa Rica.  Pp. 271.

   Brongersma L. D.  1940.  Snakes from the Leeward Group.  Venezuela and Eastern Colombia.  Pp 116-137.  In P. W. Hummelinck, Ed.  Studies on the Fauna of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and The Venezuelan Islands.  Vol. 2 Utrecht, N. V. Drukkerij P. Den Boer.

   Campbell, Jonathan A.  1998.  Amphibians and Reptiles of Northern Guatemala, the Yucatan, and Belize.  University of Oklahoma Press.  Pp. 380.

  Chiaraviglio, M. and Bertona, M. Cervantes, R. S. & Sironi, M. 1996. Aportes al conocimiento de la biologia de Boa constrictor occidentalis del noroeste de la provincial de Cordoba (Argentina).  Res. IV Cong. Latinoam. Herpetol., 1:22.

---., Sironi, M., Cervantes, R. S., Bertona, M. & Lucino, S. 1988.  Imagenes de ultrasonido de estructuras reproductivas en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes - Boidae).  GAYANA Zool., 65(1): 91-95

  Chocas, Armando Yarleque.  2000.  Las Serpientes Peruana y Sus Venemos.  Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.  Pp.78.

   Clark, C.  1988.  Hog Island Boas-An Identity Crisis.  Snake Keeper, 2(3): 9.

 ---.  1989a.  Hog Island Boas-Boa constrictor Enigma.  Snake Keeper, 3(1): 22.

 ---.  1989b.  Hog Island Boa Scale Counts.  Snake Keeper, 3(6): 18.

   Coburn, John.  1991.  The Atlas of Snakes of the World.  T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.  Pp. 591.

   Cochran, D. M.  1946.  Notes on the Herpetology of the Pearl Islands, Panama.  Smithsonian Misc. Collect.  106 (4): 1-8.

---.  1961.  Type Specimens of Reptiles and Amphibians in the United States National Museum.  Smithsonian Institution, Wash. D.C. Bulletin 220: 126. 

  Coloma, Luis A. and Santiago R. Ron.  2001.  Ecuador Megadiverso.  Centro de Biodiversidad y Ambiente. Quito, Ecuador.  Pp. 138.

  Coote, Jon.  1993.  The Boa Constrictor- Their Captive Husbandry and Reproduction.  Practical Python Publications, Nottingham, U.K.  Pp. 54.

  Cope, E. D.  1877.  Synopsis of the Cold-blooded Vertebrata Procured by Prof. James Orton in Peru.  Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc.  17: 33-49.

  Daudin, Francois Marie.  Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere des reptiles:  ouvrage faisant suite a l’histoire naturelle generale et particuliere, composee par Leclerc de Buffon, et redigee par C. S. Sonnini, member de plusiers societes savants.  Paris, F. Dufart.  (1801-1803). Vol. 5: 150.

  deVosjoli, Phillipe.  1990.  The General Care and Maintenance of Red-tailed Boas.  Advanced Vivarium Systems, Inc., Santee, Ca.  Pp. 48.

  deVosjoli, Phillipe, Klingengerg, Roger and Ronne, Jeff.  1998.  The Boa Constrictor Manual.  Advanced Vivarium Systems, Inc.  Santee, Ca.  Pp. 84.

  Ditmars, Raymond L.  1910.  Reptiles of the World.  London:  Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.  Pp. 373.

---  1946.  Snakes of the World.  The Macmillan Company, New York.  Pp. 207 with 84 black and white plates.

  Divers, S.  1993.  Captive Husbandry of the Columbian Boa constrictor.  Reptilian, 1(8): 24-29.

---.  1996.  Reproductive Biology and Reproductive Problems of Boas and Pythons.  Reptilian, 4(4): 52-58.

  Dixon, J. R. and Soini, P.  1977.  The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru.  II.  Crocodilians, Turtles and Snakes.  Milwaukee Pub. Mus. Contrib. Biol. Geol.  12: 1-91.

  Drewnowski, Glen.  1995.  Red-Tailed Boas and Other Boa Constrictors.  T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.  Pp. 64.

  Duellman, William E.  1954.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Jorullo Volcano, Michoacan, Mexico.  Occ. Papers of the Mus Zool, Univ of Mich.  No. 560: 1-24 w/ 2 plates.

---.  1978.  The Biology of an Equatorial Herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador.  Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. His., University of Kansas.  65: 1-352.

---.  1979.  The South American Herpetofauna:  Its Origin, evolution and dispersal.  Monograph 7.  Mus. Nat. Hist., University of Kansas.  Pp. 485.

---.  1963.  Amphibians and Reptiles of Rainforests of El Peten, Guatemala.  Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., University of Kansas. Vol. 15(5): 205-249.

  Duellman, William and Antonio W. Salas.  1991.  Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Cozco Amazonico, Peru.  Occ. Papers of the Mus. Nat Hist., Univ of Kansas.  No. 143: 1-13.

  Dunn, E. R.  1945.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Columbian Caribbean Islands San Andres and Providencia.  Caldasia 3(4): 269-271.

---.  1947.  Snakes of the Lerida Farm (Chiriqui Volcano, Western Panama).  Copeia No. 3.  Pp. 153-157.

  Dunn E. R. and L. H. Saxe, Jr.  1950.  Results of the Catherwood-Chaplin West Indies Expeditions, 1948.  V.  Amphibians and Reptiles of San Andres and Providencia.  Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia.  Vol. CII(102): 141-165.

  Espinoza, Nelly C. de.  1966.  Contribucion al Conocimiento de los Boideos Peruanos.  Univ. Nac. Mayor de San Marcos.  21:1-51.

  Espinoza, Nelly Carrillo de and Javier Icochea.  1995.  Lista Taxonomica Preliminar de los Reptiles Vivientes del Peru.  Publ. Del Museo de Historia Natural.  Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.  No. 49:  1-27.

  Evans, Howard.  1947.  Notes on Panamanian Reptiles and Amphibians.  Copeia No. 3.  Pp. 166-170.

  Fitch, Henry S.  1982.  Reproductive Cycles in Tropical Reptiles.  Occ. Papers of the Mus. of Nat. Hist.  No. 96: 1-53.  (not specifically boa constrictor related but an excellent paper on the neo-tropical herpetofauna)

  Flores-Villela, Oscar.  1993.  Herpetofauna Mexicana.  Annotated List of the Species of Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico, Recent Taxonomic Changes, and New Species.  Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., Special Publ. 17:1-73.

  Fogel, Dave.  1994.  Boa Constrictors in Captivity: With Notes on Subspecies.  Captive Breeding, 2(4): 4-8.

---.  1997.  Captive Husbandry and Propagation of the Boa Constrictors and Related Boas.  Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Fl.  Pp. 98.

  Forcart, Lothar.  1951.  Nomenclature Remarks on Some Generic Names of the Snake Family Boidae.  Herpetologica 7: 197-199.

  Freiberg, Marcos.  1982.  Snakes of South America.  T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey.  Pp. 187.

  Freitas, Marco Antonio de.  1999.  Serpentes de Bahia e do Brasil.  Feiro de Santana, Bahia.  Editora Dall.  Pp.  79.

  Gaige, Helen T., Norman Hartweg and L. C. Stuart.  1937.  Notes on a Collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Eastern Nicaragua.  Occ. Papers of the Mus. of Zool.  No. 357: 12.

  Garel, Tony and Sharon Matola.  1995.  A Field Guide to the Snakes of Belize.

  Goulding, Michael.  1990.  Amazon-The Flooded Forest.  Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.  NY.  Pp. 208.

  Greene, H. W.  1983.  Boa constrictor (boa, bequer, boa constrictor).  En Costa Rican Natural History.  Janzen, D. (ed.) 1983.  Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

  Griffin, Lawrence E.  1916.  A Catalog of the Ophidia From South America at Present (June, 1916) Contained in the Carnegie Museum with Descriptions of Some New Species.  Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum.  Vol. VII, No. 3 (168). 

Gunther, Albert C. L. G.  1987.  Biologia Centrali-Americana, Reptilia and Batrachia.  SSAR., Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio.  Pp. 326 with 76 plates.

  Gunther, Kohler.  1996.  Notes on a collection of reptiles from El Salvador collected between 1951 and 1956.  Senckenbergiana Biologica, Frankfurt am Main.  76(1/2) :29-38.

---.  1999.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of Nicaragua-A Distributional Checklist with Keys.  CFS, Frankfurt am Main.  No. 213.  Pp. 213 with 10 plates.  

  Haedo, Rossi, J. A.  1962.  Observaciones sobre crias de boa en las vizcacheras.  Acta Zool. Lilloana, 18: 379-384.

  Henderson, R. W. and L.G. Hoevers.  1975.  A Checklist and key to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Belize, Central America.  Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contrib. Biol. Geol.  5:1-63.

  Henderson, R. W. and T. W. P. Micucci, G. Puorto and R. W. Bourgeois.  1995.  Ecological Correlates and Patterns in the distribution of Neotropical Boines (Serpentes: Boidae): A Preliminary Assessment.  Herpetol. Nat. Hist. 3(1): 15-27.

  Hoogmed, M. S.  1979.  The Herpetofauna of the Guianan Region.  In W. E. Duellman (ed.), The South American Herpetofauna: Its Origin, Evolution and Dispersal: 241-280.  Monog. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ.

 Kansas, No. 7.

  Hubbs, C. L. and H. van der Schalie.  1937.  Some Further Notes on the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Peten Forest of Northern Guatemala.  Copeia No. 1. Pp. 67-70.

  Johnson, Jerry D.  1989.  A Biogeographic Analysis of the Herpetofauna of Northwestern Nuclear Central America.  Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contrib Biol. Geol.  76:1-66.

  Joy, W. D.  1992.  World record boa constrictor “discovered”.  Notes from NOAH, 19(10): 21.

  Klingenberg, Roger J.  1993.  Understanding Reptile Parasites.  A Basic Manual for Herpetoculturists and Veterinarians.  Advanced Vivarium Systems, Lakeside, CA.  Pp. 81.

  Kluge, Arnold A.  1991.  Boine Snake Phylogeny and Research Cycles.  Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, No. 178.

  Kohler, Gunher.  1996.  Notes on a Collection of Reptiles from El Salvador Collected Between 1951 and 1956.  Senckenbergiana Biologica  76: 29-38.

---  1999.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of Nicaragua: A Distributional Checklist with Keys.  Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg (CFS) 213.  Pp. 101 w/10 plates.

  Kornacker, Paul M.  1999.  Checklist and Key to the Snakes of Venezuela.  Pako-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany.  Pp. 270.

  Lancini, A. R.  1963.  Herpetofauna de la Isla de Patos (Golfo de Paria, Venezuela).  Bol. Soc. Venez. Cien. Nat. 23(103): 247-254.

---.  1979.  Serpientes de Venezuela.  Ernesto Armitano, Editor.  Caracas, Venezuela.  Pp. 262.

  Langhammer, James K.  1983.  A new Subspecies of Boa Constrictor, Boa constrictor melanogastor, from Ecuador (Sepentes: Boidae).  Tropical Fish Hobbyist, Vol. 32, No. 4.  Pp. 70-79.

  Lazell, James D.  1964.  The Lesser Antillean Representatives of Bothrops and Constrictor.  Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.  Harvard University.  Vol. 132, No. 3.

  Lee, J. C.  1996.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Yucatan Peninsula.  Cornell Univ. Press.  Pp. 500.

  Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher.  1999.  La Fauna de Serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano:  Diversidad, Distribucion Geographica y Estado de Conservacion.  Academia Nacional de Ciencias.  Cordoba, Argentina.  Miscelanea No. 98: 1-46.

 Luxmore, R. GroomBridge, B. and Broad, S. 1988  Significant trade in wildlife: a review of selected species in CITES Appendix II.  Vol. 2 Reptiles and Invertebrates.  IUCN Conservation Monitoring Center, Cambridge, Pp. 306.

  MacDonald, L.  1973.  Attack latency of Constrictor Constrictor as a function of prey activity.  Herpetologica, 29(1): 45-48.

  Malhotra, Anita and Roger S. Thorpe.  1999.  Reptiles and Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean.  School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, England.  Pp.  134.

  Martin, Paul S.  1958.  A Biogeography of Reptiles and Amphibians in the Gomez Farias Region, Tamaulipas, Mexico.  Misc. Pub.  Mus. of Zool. Univ. of Mich.  No.101: 1-102.

  McGinnis, S. M. and R. G. Moore.  1969.  Thermoregulation in the boa constrictor Boa constrictor.  Herpetologica, 25(1): 38-45.

  McManaway, B.  1988.  Breeding the common boa (Boa c. constrictor).  Note from NOAH, 16(1): 19.

  Medem, F.  1979.  Los Amfibios y reptiles de las Islas Gorgona y Gorgonilla.  Pp. 189-218.  In Prahl, F. Guhl and M. Grogl Eds.  Gorgona, Bogotá, Univ. de los Andes.  Pp. 179.

  Mehrtens, John M.  1987.  Living Snakes of the World in Color.  Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.  New York.  Pp. 480.

  Mongomery, G. G. and Rand, A. S.  1978.  Movements, Body Temperature and Hunting strategy of a Boa constrictor.  Copeia 1978:532-533.

  Muller, P.  1969.  Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf den Insel Marajo.  DATZ 22(4): 117-121.

  Murphy, John C.  1997.  Amphibians and Reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago.  Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Fl.  Pp. 245.

  Myers, Charles W. and S. Rand.  1969.  Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with Comments on Faunal Change and Sampling.  Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. No. 10.  Pp 11.

  Myres, Brian C. and Murray M. Eells.  1968.  Thermal Aggregation in Boa Constrictor.  Herpetologica 24(1): 61-66.

  Neill, W. T. and E. R. Allen.  1962.  Reptiles of the Cambridge Expedition to British Honduras, 1959-1960.  Herpetologica 18: 79-91.

  Norman, David R. and L. Naylor.  1994.  Amphibians and Reptiles of the Paraguayan Chaco Volume I.  San Jose, Costa Rica.  Pp. 281.

  Orton, J.  1870.  The Andes and the Amazon, or, Across the Continent of South America.  New York, Harpers & Brothers.  Pp. 356.

  O’Shea, M.  1989.  Not quite the Orinoco Flow or “Where is Hog Island?”  Snake Keeper, 3(8): 4-5.

  Perez-Santos, Carlos and Ana G. Moreno.  1988.  Monographia VI: Ofidios de Columbia.  Museo Regionale di Science Naturali, Torino, Spain.  Pp. 517.

  ---.  1991.  Monografia XI: Serpientes de Ecuador.  .  Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Spain.  Pp. 538.

  Peters, J. A.  1957.  Taxonomic notes on Ecuadorian snakes in the American Museum of Natural History.  Amer. Mus. Novitates, No. 1851: 1-13.

---.  1960.  The snakes of Ecuador.  A checklist and key.  Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 122(9): 491-541.

  Peters, J. A. and B. Orejas-Miranda.  1970.  Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata:  Part 1.  Snakes.  Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 297: 1-347.

  Phillipi, R. A.  1873.  Ueber die Boa der westlichen Provinzen der Argentinischen Republik.  Zeitschr.  Ges. Naturwiss.  41:  127-130, pl. 3.

  Porras, Louis W.  1999.  Island Boa Constrictors (Boa constrictor).  Reptiles, 7(12): 48-61.

  Prado, Alcides and Alphose R. Hoge.  1947.  Notas Ofiologicas-Observacoes sobre serpentes do Peru.  Mem. Inst. Butantan.  20: 283-296.

  Price, Robert M. and Russo, Paul.  1991.  Revisionary Comments on the Genus Boa with the Description of a New Subspecies of Boa Constrictor from Peru.  The Snake, Vol. 23, Pp. 29-35.

  Quelch, J. J.  1897.  The Boa Constrictors.  Timehri (2) 11: 294-313.

  ---1898.  The Boa Constrictors of British Guiana.  Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 1: 296-308.

  Reichling, Steven B.  1991.  The Serpents of St. Lucia, Bothrops carribae and Boa constrictor orophias.  The Vivarium 3 (3): 7-9, 22.

  Renjifo, J. M. and Lundberg, K.  1999.  Guia de campo Anfibios y Reptiles de Urra.  Editorial Cloina, Medellin, Columbia. Pp. 96.

  Restrepo, J. H.  1986.  Las Serpientes.  Pp. 148-161.  In Prahl, H. von and M. Alberico Eds. Isla Gorgona.  Banco Popular.  Bogotá, Columbia.  Pp. 252.

  Rivero-Blanco, C. and Dixon, J. R.  1979.  Origin and Distribution of the Herpetofauna of the Dry Lowland Regions of Northern South America.  En: The South American Herpetofauna: its Origin, Evolution and Dispersal.  Duellman, W. E. (ed.) Lawrence: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas.

  Ross, Richard A. and Marzec, Gerald.  1984.  The Bacterial Diseases of Reptiles.  The Institute for Herpetological Research, Stanford, Ca.  Pp. 114 with color plates.

---.  1990.  The Reproductive Husbandry of Pythons and Boas.  The Institute for Herpetological Research, Stanford, Ca.  Pp. 270.

  Roze, J. A.  1966.  La Taxonomia y zoogeographia de los ofidios en Venezuela.  Univ. Central Venezuela.  Caracas.  Edit. Biblioteca 28.  Pp. 383.

---.  1966?  La Herpetologia de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela.  Mem. Soc. Cien. Nat. La Salle.  24(69): 209-241.

  Sanchex, Felipe C.  2001.  Aspectos de Mantenimiento y Reproduccion en Cautiverio de Boa constrictor imperator.  Boletin de la Sociedad Herpetologica Mexicana, Vol. 9 No. 1.  Pp. 29-30.

  Savage, Jay M.  1980.  A Handlist with Preliminary Keys to the Herpetofauna of Costa Rica.  University of Southern California, L.A., Ca.  Pp.111.

  Savage, Jay M. and Jaime Villa R.  1986.  Introduction to the Herpetofauna of Costa Rica.  SSAR, Athens, Ohio.  Pp. 270.

  Saxon, J. G.  1965.  Longevity Record of 22 Years for Boa constrictor.  Herpetologica, 20: 286.

  Schmidt, K. P.  1941.  The Amphibians and Reptiles of British Honduras.  Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser. 22 (8): 475-510.

---. and E. Wyllys Andrews.  Notes on Snakes from Yucatan.  Zoological Series, Field Mus. Nat. Hist.  20(18): 167-187.

---. and Shannon, Frederick A. 1947.  Notes on Amphibians and Reptiles of Michoacan, Mexico.  Fieldiana Zoology, Chic, Nat. Hist. Mus.  31(9): 63-85.

  Schmidt, K. P. and W. F. Walker.  1943.  Snakes of the Peruvian Coastal Region.  Zool. Series Field Mus. Nat. Hist.  24(27): 122-124.

  Schumacher, J.  1994.  Inclusion Body Disease in Boid Snakes.  J. Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 25(4): 511-524.

  Schwartz, Albert and Thomas, Richard.  1975.  A Checklist of West Indian Amphibians and Reptiles.  Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 1.  Pittsburgh, Pa.  Pp. 216.

  Schwartz, Albert and Robert W. Henderson.  1991.  Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History.  University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Fl.  Pp. 720.

  Seigal, Richard A. and Collins, Joseph T.  1993.  Snakes Ecology and Behavior.  McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.  Pp. 414.

  Scott, N. and Lovet, J. W. 1975.   A Collection of Reptiles and Amphibians from the Chaco of Paraguay.  Occass. Pap. Univ. of Connecticut, 2(16):257-266.

  Segura, Omar P.  2000.  Boa endemica del Peru, Boa constrictor ortonii (macanche).  CER Huachipa, Lima-Peru.  Ano 1, No. 4.  Pp.4-5, 24-26.

  Slevin, J. R.  1926.  Expedition to the Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, in 1925, III.  Notes on a Collection of Reptiles and Amphibians From Tres Marias and Revillagigedo Islands, and West Coast of Mexico, with description of a new species of Tantilla.  Prov. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4.  15: 195-207.

  ---.  1939.  Notes on a Collection of Reptiles and Amphibians from Guatemala.  I. Snakes.  Proc. Cal. Acad. Scien.  23 (26): 393-414.

  ---.  1942.  Notes on a Collection of Reptiles from Boquete, Panama, with the Description of a New Species of Hydromorphus.  Proc. Cal. Acad. Scien.  23 (32): 463-480.

  Smith, H. M.  1943.  Summary of the Collections of Snakes and Crocodilians Made in Mexico Under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship.  Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 93: 393-504.

---.  1947.  Herpetogony in Mexico and Guatemala.  Ann. Assoc.  Am. Geog., 34(3): 219-238.

---.  1965.  Snakes as Pets.  TFH, Inc., Jersey City, New Jersey.  Pp. 126.

  Smith, Hobart M. and Rozella B. Smith.  1973.  Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico.  Vol. II: Analysis of the Literature Exclusive of the Mexican Axolotl.  Eric Lundberg, Augusta, West Virginia.  Pp. 367.

  Smith, Hobart M. and E. H. Taylor.  1945.  An Annotated Checklist and key to the Snakes of Mexico.  U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull.  187: 1-239.

  Stafford, Peter J.  1986.  Boas and Pythons.  T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.  Pp. 192.

  Starace, Fausto.  1998.  Guide des Sepents et Amphisbenes de Guyane.  Guadeloupe, Guyane.  Pp. 449.

  Staton, Mark A. and J. R. Dixon.  1977.  The Herpetofauna of the Central Llanos of Venezuela:  Noteworthy Records, a Tentative Checklist and Ecological Notes.  Journal of Herpetology 11(1): 17-24.

  Stejneger, L.  1899.  Reptiles of the Tres Marias and Isabel Islands.  North Amer. Fauna (14): 63-71.

  Stejneger, L.  1901.  An Annotated List of Batrchians and Reptiles Collected in the Vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela, with Two New Descriptions of Snakes.  Smithsonian Institution, U.S.N.M. Vol. XXIV(1248): 179-192.

  Stimson, Andrew F.  1969.  Liste der Amphibien and Reptilien.  Das Tierreich.  Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin.  Seite I-XI, 1-49.  Pp. 49.

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